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From Wikipedia:

MediaWiki is a free and open-source wiki software, used to power wiki websites such as Wikipedia, Wiktionary and Commons, developed by the Wikimedia Foundation and others. It also runs thousands of other websites.[1] It is written in the PHP programming language and uses a backend database.

The first version of the software was deployed to serve the needs of the Wikipedia encyclopedia in 2002.[2] Wikipedia and other Wikimedia projects continue to define a large part of the requirement set for MediaWiki.[3] The software is optimized to efficiently handle large projects, which can have terabytes of content and hundreds of thousands of hits per second.[3][4] Because Wikipedia is one of the world's largest websites, achieving scalability through multiple layers of caching and database replication has been a major concern for developers.

The software has more than 700 configuration settings[5] and more than 1,800 extensions available for enabling various features to be added or changed.[6] On Wikipedia alone, more than 1000 automated and semi-automated bots and other tools have been developed to assist in editing.[7]

It has also been deployed by some companies as an internal knowledge management system,[8] and some educators have assigned students to use MediaWiki for collaborative group projects.[9]

Source: Wikipedia, MediaWiki